The simple and primitive people obeyed the envoys of the Sun. Before the Quechua spelling reform it was written in Spanish as Tahuantinsuyo. The relationship between the two groups was complex and at times there was friction. Another slab is shaped to echo the mountain beyond. He retreated to the mountains of Vilcabamba and founded the Neo-Inca State. Despite all this, many people in the Andean highlands are descendants of the tribes which existed as part of the Inca empire. This centralized, or organized, society reached an extraordinary level of development, and isolated forms of private property even appeared, mainly in Cusco, that heralded a passage to another phase in the history of the state and social classes. It was traditional for the Inca's son to lead the army; Pachacuti's son Túpac Inca began conquests to the north in 1463 and continued them as Inca after Pachucuti's death in 1471. Using a wide variety of colors, strings, and at times several hundred knots all tied in various ways at various heights, a quipu was used to record values encoded by knots in a base ten positional system. It was this combination of factors - a perfect storm of rebellion, disease, and invasion - which brought the downfall of the mighty Inca Empire, the largest and richest ever seen in the Americas. The shaped stone architecture (sometimes called 'pillow-faced') is among the finest in the world, with large stones sanded into tight jigsaw like patterns. One ran down the spine of the Andes, another along the coast. Although some historians believe that Atahualpa should not be included in the Capac Cuna, arguing that Atahualpa declared himself subject of Carlos I of Spain, in addition to the fact that he never wore the Mascapaicha, the symbol of imperial power, the majority of historians see the list of thirteen Incas as being true, listing the thirteenth as Atahualpa. The Inca Empire spanned an area of 1,700,300 square kilometers.

Pachacuti died in 1471 and was succeeded by his son Topa Inca Yupanqui (“noble Inca accountant”).
Over four months, almost 8 tons of gold was collected. Hernando de Soto was sent inland to explore the interior, and returned with an invitation to meet the Inca, Atahualpa, who had defeated his brother in the civil war and was resting at Cajamarca with his army of 80,000 troops. Pachacuti is also thought to have built Machu Picchu, either as a family home or retreat. The Inca state was known as the Kingdom of Cuzco before 1438. Though there is no substantial evidence to confirm his existence, Manco Capac probably did exist. The Inca people began as a tribe in the Cusco area around the 12th century. The Incas, specifically, were brought into existence at Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) from the sun god Inti, hence, they regarded themselves as the chosen few, the 'Children of the Sun', and the Inca ruler was Inti's representative and embodiment on earth. The population of the people of the Inca empire rapidly declined after the arrival of the Spanish. Yupanqui changed his name to Pachacuti which means “earth shaker” or “he who overturns space and time”. The Inca Empire was the largest prehispanic society of South America when it was 'discovered' by the Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro in the 16th century AD. Cuzco was considered the navel of the world, and radiating out were highways and sacred sighting lines (ceques) to each quarter: Chinchaysuyu (north), Antisuyu (east), Collasuyu (south), and Cuntisuyu (west). If you continue to use this site we will assume that you accept their use. The most important political, religious, and military roles within the empire were, then, kept in the hands of the Inca elite, called by the Spanish the orejones or 'big ears' because they wore large earspools to indicate their status. As with other ancient Americas cultures, the historical origins of the Incas are difficult to disentangle from the founding myths they themselves created.


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